Vitamin Soup

Vitamin Campaign

A
B
C
D
E

G
H
K
M
P

A
1.
a yellow, fat-soluble, solid terpene alcohol, C 20 H 30 O, obtained from carotene and occurring in green and yellow vegetables, egg yolk, etc.: essential to growth, the protection of epithelial tissue, and the prevention of night blindness.
Also called vitamin A 1 , retinol.
Origin: 1920–25
vitamin A2
1.a yellow oil, C 20 H 28 O, similar to vitamin A, obtained from fish liver.

B
vitamin B1
[rahy-boh-fley-vin, rahy-boh-fley-, -buh-]

– noun
1.
thiamine.
Origin: 1920–25
vitamin B2
[thahy-uh-min, -meen]
– noun
1.
riboflavin.
Origin: 1925–30
vitamin B3
– noun
1.
nicotinic acid.
vitamin B6
– noun
1.
pyridoxine.
Origin: 1930–35
vitamin B9
– noun
1.
folic acid.
vitamin B12
– noun
1.
a deep-red crystalline, water-soluble solid, C 63 H 88 N 14 O 14 PCo, obtained from liver, milk, eggs, fish, oysters, and clams: a deficiency causes pernicious anemia and disorders of the nervous system.
Also called cyanocobalamin, cobalamin, extrinsic factor.
Origin: 1945–50
nicotinic acid
– noun Biochemistry
1.
a crystalline acid, C 6 H 5 NO 2 , that is a component of the vitamin-B complex, found in fresh meat, yeast, etc., produced by the oxidation of nicotine, and used in the prevention and treatment of pellagra.
Also called niacin, vitamin B 3 .
Origin: 1885–90
ri·bo·fla·vin
– noun Biochemistry
1.
a vitamin B complex factor appearing as an orange-yellow, crystalline compound, C 1 7 H 2 0 N 4 O 6 , derived from ribose, essential for growth, found in milk, fresh meat, eggs, leafy vegetables, etc., or made synthetically, and used in enriching flour, in vitamin preparations, and in treating facial lesions.
Also, ri·bo·fla·vine Also called lactoflavin, vitamin B2, vitamin G.
Origin: 1930–35; ribo(se) + flavin
thi·a·mine
– noun Biochemistry
1.
a white, crystalline, water-soluble compound of the vitamin-B complex, containing a thiazole and a pyrimidine group, C 12 H 17 ClN 4 OS, essential for normal functioning of the nervous system, a deficiency of which results chiefly in beriberi and other nerve disorders: occurring in many natural sources, as green peas, liver, and especially the seed coats of cereal grains, the commercial product of which is chiefly synthesized in the form of its chloride (thiamine chloride or thiamine hydrochloride) for therapeutic administration, or in nitrate form (thiamine mononitrate) for enriching flour mixes.
Also, thi·a·min Also called vitamin B1, aneurin, aneurine.
Origin: 1905–10; thi- + amine

C
– noun
1.
ascorbic acid.
Origin: 1920–25
a·scor·bic ac·id
– noun Biochemistry
1.
a white, crystalline, water-soluble vitamin, C 6 H 8 O 6 , occurring naturally in citrus fruits, green vegetables, etc., and often produced synthetically, essential for normal metabolism: used in the prevention and treatment of scurvy, and in wound-healing and tissue repair.
Also called antiscorbutic acid, vitamin C.
Origin: 1930–35; a-6 + scor- b(ut)ic

D
vitamin D
[kal-sif-uh-rawl, -rol]

– noun
1.
any of the several fat-soluble, antirachitic vitamins D 1 , D 2 , D 3 , occurring in milk and fish-liver oils, especially cod and halibut, or obtained by irradiating provitamin D with ultraviolet light, essential for the formation of normal bones and teeth.
Origin: 1920–25
vitamin D1
– noun
1.
a mixture of lumisterol and calciferol, obtained by ultraviolet irradiation of ergosterol.
vitamin D2
– noun
1.
calciferol.
vitamin D3
– noun
1.
a D vitamin, C 27 H 43 OH, occurring in fish-liver oils, that differs from vitamin D 2 by slight structural differences in the molecule.
Also called cholecalciferol.
cal·cif·er·ol
– noun Biochemistry
1.
a fat-soluble, crystalline, unsaturated alcohol, C 28 H 43 OH, occurring in milk, fish-liver oils, etc., produced by ultraviolet irradiation of ergosterol, and used as a dietary supplement, as in fortified milk. Also called vitamin D2.
Origin: 1930–35; calcif(erous) + (ergost)erol

E
vitamin E

1.
a pale-yellow viscous fluid, abundant in vegetable oils, whole-grain cereals, butter, and eggs, and important as an antioxidant in the deactivation of free radicals and in maintenance of the body’s cell membranes: deficiency is rare.
Also called alpha-tocopherol. Compare tocopherol.
Origin: 1920–25

G
vitamin G
[rahy-boh-fley-vin, rahy-boh-fley-, -buh-]

– noun
1.
riboflavin.
Origin: 1925–30
ri·bo·fla·vin
– noun Biochemistry
1.
a vitamin B complex factor appearing as an orange-yellow, crystalline compound, C 1 7 H 2 0 N 4 O 6 , derived from ribose, essential for growth, found in milk, fresh meat, eggs, leafy vegetables, etc., or made synthetically, and used in enriching flour, in vitamin preparations, and in treating facial lesions.
Also, ri·bo·fla·vine Also called lactoflavin, vitamin B2, vitamin G.
Origin: 1930–35; ribo(se) + flavin

H
vitamin H
[bahy-uh-tin]

– noun
1.
biotin.
Origin: 1930–35
bi·o·tin
– noun Biochemistry
1.
a crystalline, water-soluble vitamin, C 10 H 16 O 3 N 2 S, of the vitamin B complex, that is present in all living cells and functions as a growth factor and as a catalyst in carboxylation reactions.
Also called vitamin H.
Origin: 1935–40; < G Biotin < Gk biotḗ life + -in -in2

K
vitamin K1
[men-uh-dahy-ohn]

– noun
1.
a yellowish, oily, viscous liquid, C 31 H 46 O 2 , occurring in leafy vegetables, rice, bran, hog liver, etc., or obtained especially from alfalfa or putrefied sardine meat, or synthesized, that promotes blood clotting by increasing the prothrombin content of the blood.
Also called phylloquinone, phytonadione.
Origin: 1930–35
vitamin K2
– noun
1.
a light-yellow, crystalline solid, C 41 H 56 O 2 , having properties similar to those of vitamin K 1 .
vitamin K3
– noun
1.
menadione.
men·a·di·one
– noun Pharmacology
1.
a synthetic yellow crystalline powder, C 1 1 H 8 O 2 , insoluble in water, used as a vitamin K supplement.
Also called vitamin K 3 .
Origin: 1940–45; me(thyl) + na(phthalene) + di-1 + -one

M
vitamin M

1.
folic acid.

P
vitamin P
[bahy-oh-fley-vuh-noid]

– noun
1.
bioflavonoid.
Also called citrin.
bi·o·fla·vo·noid
– noun Biochemistry
1.
any of a group of water-soluble yellow compounds, present in citrus fruits, rose hips, and other plants, that in mammals maintain the resistance of capillary walls to permeation and change of pressure.
Also called citrin, vitamin P.
Origin: 1950–55; bio- + flavonoid any derivative of flavone (flavon(e) + -oid)

************************
A
1.
a yellow, fat-soluble, solid terpene alcohol, C 20 H 30 O, obtained from carotene (car·o·tene
[kar-uh-teen]

– noun
1.
any of three yellow or orange fat-soluble pigments having the formula C 40 H 56 , found in many plants, especially carrots, and transformed to vitamin A in the liver; provitamin A.
Also, carotin.
Origin: 1860–65; < LL carōt(a) carrot + -ene) and occurring in green and yellow vegetables, egg yolk, etc.: essential to growth, the protection of epithelial tissue, and the prevention of night blindness.
Also called vitamin A 1 , retinol (ret·i·nol
[ret-n-awl, -ol]

– noun
1.
vitamin A.
2.
Chemistry a yellowish oil, C 3 2 H 1 6 , obtained by the distillation of resin, used as a solvent and as an antiseptic.
Origin: 1830–40; < Gk rhētī́n(ē) resin + -ol1).
Origin: 1920–25
vitamin A2
1.a yellow oil, C 20 H 28 O, similar to vitamin A, obtained from fish liver.

B
vitamin B1
[rahy-boh-fley-vin, rahy-boh-fley-, -buh-]

– noun
1.
thiamine.(thi·a·mine
[thahy-uh-min, -meen]

– noun Biochemistry
1.
a white, crystalline, water-soluble compound of the vitamin-B complex, containing a thiazole and a pyrimidine group, C 12 H 17 ClN 4 OS, essential for normal functioning of the nervous system, a deficiency of which results chiefly in beriberi and other nerve disorders: occurring in many natural sources, as green peas, liver, and especially the seed coats of cereal grains, the commercial product of which is chiefly synthesized in the form of its chloride (thiamine chloride or thiamine hydrochloride) for therapeutic administration, or in nitrate form (thiamine mononitrate) for enriching flour mixes.
Also, thi·a·min Also called vitamin B1, aneurin, aneurine.
Origin: 1905–10; thi- + amine)
Origin: 1920–25
vitamin B2
[thahy-uh-min, -meen]
– noun
1.
riboflavin (ri·bo·fla·vin
[rahy-boh-fley-vin, rahy-boh-fley-, -buh-]

– noun Biochemistry
1.
a vitamin B complex factor appearing as an orange-yellow, crystalline compound, C 1 7 H 2 0 N 4 O 6 , derived from ribose, essential for growth, found in milk, fresh meat, eggs, leafy vegetables, etc., or made synthetically, and used in enriching flour, in vitamin preparations, and in treating facial lesions.
Also, ri·bo·fla·vine Also called lactoflavin, vitamin B2, vitamin G.
Origin: 1930–35; ribo(se) + flavin)
Origin: 1925–30
vitamin B3
– noun
1.
nicotinic acid. (nicotinic acid

1.
a crystalline acid, C 6 H 5 NO 2 , that is a component of the vitamin-B complex, found in fresh meat, yeast, etc., produced by the oxidation of nicotine, and used in the prevention and treatment of pellagra (pel·la·gra
[puh-lag-ruh, -ley-gruh, -lah-]

– noun Pathol.
1.
a disease caused by a deficiency of niacin in the diet, characterized by skin changes, severe nerve dysfunction, mental symptoms, and diarrhea.
Origin: 1805–15; < It < NL: skin disease, equiv. to pell(is) skin + -agra < Gk ágra seizure)
Also called niacin, vitamin B 3 .
Origin: 1885–90)
vitamin B6
– noun
1.
pyridoxine. (pyr·i·dox·ine
[pir-i-dok-seen, -sin]

– noun Biochemistry
1.
a derivative of pyridine, C 8 H 1 1 NO 3 , occurring in whole-grain cereals, meats, fish, etc., and also made synthetically: required for the prevention of pellagra and the formation of hemoglobin; vitamin B 6 .
Also, pyr·i·dox·in
Origin: 1935–40; pyrid(ine) + ox(ygen) + -ine2)
Origin: 1930–35
vitamin B9
– noun
1.
folic acid. (folic acid

1.
a water-soluble vitamin that is converted to a coenzyme essential to purine and thymine biosynthesis: deficiency causes a form of anemia (a·ne·mi·a
[uh-nee-mee-uh]

– noun
1.
Pathol. a quantitative deficiency of the hemoglobin, often accompanied by a reduced number of red blood cells and causing pallor, weakness, and breathlessness.
2.
a lack of power, vigor, vitality, or colorfulness: His writing suffers from anemia.
Also, anaemia.
Origin: 1800–10; < NL < Gk anaimía want of blood. See an-1, -emia)
Origin: 1940–45)
vitamin B12
– noun
1.
a deep-red crystalline, water-soluble solid, C 63 H 88 N 14 O 14 PCo, obtained from liver, milk, eggs, fish, oysters, and clams: a deficiency causes pernicious anemia and disorders of the nervous system.
Also called cyanocobalamin, cobalamin, extrinsic factor.
Origin: 1945–50
nicotinic acid
– noun Biochemistry
1.
a crystalline acid, C 6 H 5 NO 2 , that is a component of the vitamin-B complex, found in fresh meat, yeast, etc., produced by the oxidation of nicotine, and used in the prevention and treatment of pellagra.
Also called niacin, vitamin B 3 .
Origin: 1885–90
ri·bo·fla·vin
– noun Biochemistry
1.
a vitamin B complex factor appearing as an orange-yellow, crystalline compound, C 1 7 H 2 0 N 4 O 6 , derived from ribose, essential for growth, found in milk, fresh meat, eggs, leafy vegetables, etc., or made synthetically, and used in enriching flour, in vitamin preparations, and in treating facial lesions.
Also, ri·bo·fla·vine Also called lactoflavin, vitamin B2, vitamin G.
Origin: 1930–35; ribo(se) + flavin
thi·a·mine
– noun Biochemistry
1.
a white, crystalline, water-soluble compound of the vitamin-B complex, containing a thiazole and a pyrimidine group, C 12 H 17 ClN 4 OS, essential for normal functioning of the nervous system, a deficiency of which results chiefly in beriberi and other nerve disorders: occurring in many natural sources, as green peas, liver, and especially the seed coats of cereal grains, the commercial product of which is chiefly synthesized in the form of its chloride (thiamine chloride or thiamine hydrochloride) for therapeutic administration, or in nitrate form (thiamine mononitrate) for enriching flour mixes.
Also, thi·a·min Also called vitamin B1, aneurin, aneurine.
Origin: 1905–10; thi- + amine

C
– noun
1.
ascorbic acid (a·scor·bic ac·id
[uh-skawr-bik]

– noun Biochemistry
1.
a white, crystalline, water-soluble vitamin, C 6 H 8 O 6 , occurring naturally in citrus fruits, green vegetables, etc., and often produced synthetically, essential for normal metabolism: used in the prevention and treatment of scurvy, and in wound-healing and tissue repair.
Also called antiscorbutic acid, vitamin C.
Origin: 1930–35; a-6 + scor- b(ut)ic)
Origin: 1920–25
a·scor·bic ac·id
– noun Biochemistry
1.
a white, crystalline, water-soluble vitamin, C 6 H 8 O 6 , occurring naturally in citrus fruits, green vegetables, etc., and often produced synthetically, essential for normal metabolism: used in the prevention and treatment of scurvy, and in wound-healing and tissue repair.
Also called antiscorbutic acid, vitamin C.
Origin: 1930–35; a-6 + scor- b(ut)ic

D
vitamin D
[kal-sif-uh-rawl, -rol]

– noun
1.
any of the several fat-soluble, antirachitic vitamins D 1 , D 2 , D 3 , occurring in milk and fish-liver oils, especially cod and halibut, or obtained by irradiating provitamin D with ultraviolet light, essential for the formation of normal bones and teeth.
Origin: 1920–25
vitamin D1
– noun
1.
a mixture of lumisterol and calciferol, obtained by ultraviolet irradiation of ergosterol.
vitamin D2
– noun
1.
calciferol. (cal·cif·er·ol
[kal-sif-uh-rawl, -rol]

– noun Biochemistry
1.
a fat-soluble, crystalline, unsaturated alcohol, C 28 H 43 OH, occurring in milk, fish-liver oils, etc., produced by ultraviolet irradiation of ergosterol, and used as a dietary supplement, as in fortified milk. Also called vitamin D2.
Origin: 1930–35; calcif(erous) + (ergost)erol)
vitamin D3
– noun
1.
a D vitamin, C 27 H 43 OH, occurring in fish-liver oils, that differs from vitamin D 2 by slight structural differences in the molecule.
Also called cholecalciferol.
cal·cif·er·ol
– noun Biochemistry
1.
a fat-soluble, crystalline, unsaturated alcohol, C 28 H 43 OH, occurring in milk, fish-liver oils, etc., produced by ultraviolet irradiation of ergosterol, and used as a dietary supplement, as in fortified milk. Also called vitamin D2.
Origin: 1930–35; calcif(erous) + (ergost)erol

E
vitamin E

1.
a pale-yellow viscous fluid, abundant in vegetable oils, whole-grain cereals, butter, and eggs, and important as an antioxidant in the deactivation of free radicals and in maintenance of the body's cell membranes: deficiency is rare.
Also called alpha-tocopherol. Compare tocopherol.
Origin: 1920–25

G
vitamin G
[rahy-boh-fley-vin, rahy-boh-fley-, -buh-]

– noun
1.
riboflavin.
Origin: 1925–30
ri·bo·fla·vin
– noun Biochemistry
1.
a vitamin B complex factor appearing as an orange-yellow, crystalline compound, C 1 7 H 2 0 N 4 O 6 , derived from ribose, essential for growth, found in milk, fresh meat, eggs, leafy vegetables, etc., or made synthetically, and used in enriching flour, in vitamin preparations, and in treating facial lesions.
Also, ri·bo·fla·vine Also called lactoflavin, vitamin B2, vitamin G.
Origin: 1930–35; ribo(se) + flavin

H
vitamin H
[bahy-uh-tin]

– noun
1.
biotin.
Origin: 1930–35
bi·o·tin
– noun Biochemistry
1.
a crystalline, water-soluble vitamin, C 10 H 16 O 3 N 2 S, of the vitamin B complex, that is present in all living cells and functions as a growth factor and as a catalyst in carboxylation reactions. (carboxyl group

1.
the univalent radical COOH, present in and characteristic of organic acids.
Origin: 1875–80)
Also called vitamin H.
Origin: 1935–40; < G Biotin < Gk biotḗ life + -in -in2

K
vitamin K1
[men-uh-dahy-ohn]

– noun
1.
a yellowish, oily, viscous liquid, C 31 H 46 O 2 , occurring in leafy vegetables, rice, bran, hog liver, etc., or obtained especially from alfalfa or putrefied sardine meat, or synthesized, that promotes blood clotting by increasing the prothrombin (pro·throm·bin
[proh-throm-bin]

– noun Biochemistry
1.
a plasma protein involved in blood coagulation that on activation by factors in the plasma is converted to thrombin.
Also called thrombogen.
Origin: 1895–1900; pro-1 + thrombin) content of the blood.
Also called phylloquinone, phytonadione.
Origin: 1930–35
vitamin K2
– noun
1.
a light-yellow, crystalline solid, C 41 H 56 O 2 , having properties similar to those of vitamin K 1 .
vitamin K3
– noun
1.
menadione.
men·a·di·one
– noun Pharmacology
1.
a synthetic yellow crystalline powder, C 1 1 H 8 O 2 , insoluble in water, used as a vitamin K supplement.
Also called vitamin K 3 .
Origin: 1940–45; me(thyl) + na(phthalene) + di-1 + -one

M
vitamin M

1.
folic acid.

P
vitamin P
[bahy-oh-fley-vuh-noid]

– noun
1.
bioflavonoid.
Also called citrin.
bi·o·fla·vo·noid
– noun Biochemistry
1.
any of a group of water-soluble yellow compounds, present in citrus fruits, rose hips, and other plants, that in mammals maintain the resistance of capillary walls to permeation and change of pressure.
Also called citrin, vitamin P.
Origin: 1950–55; bio- + flavonoid any derivative of flavone (flavon(e) + -oid)

*************************

What it does:
A
obtained from carotene
essential to growth, the protection of epithelial tissue, and the prevention of night blindness.
used as a solvent and as an antiseptic.

B
vitamin B1thiamine
essential for normal functioning of the nervous system, a deficiency of which results chiefly in beriberi* and other nerve disorders:
vitamin B2
riboflavin
used in the prevention and treatment of pellagra
a disease caused by a deficiency of niacin in the diet, characterized by skin changes, severe nerve dysfunction, mental symptoms, and diarrhea.

vitamin B6
pyridoxine required for the prevention of pellagra and the formation of hemoglobin;
vitamin B9
folic acid is converted to a coenzyme essential to purine and thymine biosynthesis: deficiency causes a form of anemia
Pathol. a quantitative deficiency of the hemoglobin, often accompanied by a reduced number of red blood cells and causing pallor, weakness, and breathlessness.
2.a lack of power, vigor, vitality, or colorfulness:

vitamin B12
deficiency causes pernicious anemia and disorders of the nervous system.

nicotinic acid
produced by the oxidation of nicotine, and used in the prevention and treatment of pellagra.Also called niacin, vitamin B 3 .

ri·bo·fla·vin
and used in enriching flour, in vitamin preparations, and in treating facial lesions.

*essential for normal functioning of the nervous system, a deficiency of which results chiefly in beriberi ber·i·ber·i (characterized by pain in and paralysis of the extremities, and severe emaciation or swelling of the body) and other nerve disorders: the commercial product of which is chiefly synthesized in the form of its chloride (thiamine chloride or thiamine hydrochloride) for therapeutic administration, or in nitrate form (thiamine mononitrate) for enriching flour

C
essential for normal metabolism: used in the prevention and treatment of scurvy, and in wound-healing and tissue repair.

D
essential for the formation of normal bones and teeth.

E
vitamin E
and important as an antioxidant in the deactivation of free radicals and in maintenance of the body's cell membranes:

G
essential for growth, used in enriching flour, in vitamin preparations, and in treating facial lesions.

H
vitamin H is present in all living cells and functions as a growth factor and as a catalyst in carboxylation reactions.

K
that promotes blood clotting by increasing the prothrombin
a plasma protein involved in blood coagulation that on activation by factors in the plasma is converted to thrombin.

M
folic acid. See vitamin B lack of power.

P
vitamin P
that in mammals maintain the resistance of capillary walls to permeation and change of pressure.

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